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Are you brave enough to zap a zombie or waste a werewolf? If you hear a scary noise, do you run to investigate or run for cover? None of us knows for sure how we’ll react in a spooky situation, but one thing is certain: Everyone knows the feeling of fright.

“Sometimes when I’m reading a scary book I start to sweat,” says 12 year old Tommy Bill, from Virginia Beach, Va. . . or get away fast. This is known as the fight or flight response, says Dr. Ned Kalin, a professor of psychiatry at the University of Wisconsin Madison Medical School. Humans have always been equipped with this automatic response. Kalin says it helps us cope with danger, such as coming face to face with a wild animal or an overbearing gym teacher.

But isn’t confronting a crazed creature different from reading about one? Not really, Kalin says. “The same systems in your brain and throughout your body are activated whether the cause of your fear is real or imagined,” he explains. When we read or watch a movie, the brain perceives the ideas and images as scary and activates other organs.

SKIN THAT GOES BUMP

The fear message stimulates a branch of the nervous system called the autonomic nervous system. This part of the nervous system controls your body’s involuntary functions, such as your heartbeat and breathing. The autonomic nervous system also controls many glands. These are organs that produce hormones, chemicals that carry messages from one part of the body to another.

When you’re afraid, the adrenal glands (located above the kidneys) start pumping out the hormone adrenaline (also know as epinephrine), as well as several other hormones. Your nervous system and these hormones trigger several reactions to prepare your body to fight or flee (see The Fight or Flight Response). L. Stine? Does “chicken skin” serve any useful purpose when you’re feeling chicken?

Scientists think it used to at least for our fur covered ancestors. Here’s why: Goosebumps form when adrenaline causes contractions of tiny muscles attached to each hair. The muscles pull the hairs up and the hairs pull the skin. If you’ve ever seen a cat with its fur puffed up, you’ve seen what goose bumps can do. They make an animal appear bigger than it really is. That might make a predator think twice before attacking.

You may also get goose bUmps when you get a chill from your thrill. Being afraid can make You sweat which cools you off. The raised hairs that produce goose bumps are an attempt to trap air and body heat.

THAT’S USING YOUR HEAD

So how do you calm yourself after a scare? Use your head! When you remind yourself that the source of your fright isn’t real, the brain sends a calling message to the rest of your body. And without you knowing it, your autonomic nervous system begins to reverse the effects of fright.

What is the first trimester of pregnancy symptoms

Usually, pregnancy period has been divided into three trimesters. An expectant mother undergoes several changes during each trimester. Undeniably, having the experience of being mother is very pleasant and mothers take care of their baby for normal delivery. There are some natural first trimester of pregnancy symptoms that help women to understand the condition and status of pregnancy trimester.wholesale jerseys Usually, a missed period is the earliest first trimester of pregnancy symptom. Moreover, women can go for the HPT or blood test for confirmation. Here we are dividing the pregnancy trimester into months to easily understand the several symptoms that keep changing with the months. The first trimester of pregnancy symptoms include missed period, breast tenderness, weight gain, frequent urination, fatigue and more.

First Month pregnancy: It is the starting month of the pregnancy and it includes first trimester of pregnancy symptoms:

2. These symptoms are natural so whenever you find any abnormalities in symptoms such as bleeding or severe pain or another problems rush to the doctor or obstetrician immediately.

3. Always avoid strenuous work to perform

4. Avoid playing those games that can make you slip or fall

5. Don jump and bend your knee suddenly

6. Drink as much water as you can to keep yourself hydrated

7. Don sit or stand idle in one place continuously

These are the considerable points that need to be remembered by each would be mother during first trimester of pregnancy. Usually, pregnancy trimester include all these given symptoms. Moreover, women must understand the first trimester of pregnancy symptoms to make their schedule according to it.

What every parent needs to know

But the debate over the impact of birth order gained new urgency this summer when the results of a new study were announced: ‘ IQs tend to be higher than those of their younger siblings.

Does that mean later born kids are destined to be less accomplished and successful? Studies like this don’t tell the whole story and neither do birth order stereotypes. Here’s how to bring out the best in each child:

Norwegian scientists analyzed test results and birth data from more than 241,000 military conscripts and found that oldest children had an average IQ of 103, second children came in at 101, and third borns were at 100.

Is that a big spread? It’s not a difference you’d ever notice, but some researchers say it could mean the difference between getting into a top college versus a second tier one.

What accounts for the difference? Nobody knows. There’s speculation that eldest kids benefit from having their parents’ undivided attention for a while until another swaddled bundle arrives home from the hospital, that is. Or it could be that moms and dads have especially big dreams for their first kid, and the child picks up on it. Another theory: Eldest children are given more responsibility and are expected to show their sibs the ropes, which builds brainpower. Like all studies, this one has limitations:

The study’s Norwegian maybe there’s something special in the lingonberries over there.

The subjects were all male who knows if it’s true for sisters?

IQ numbers themselves aren’t rock solid. “Today’s tests have a surprising degree of error,” says Nathan Haselbauer, founder and president of the International High IQ Society. A score of 110, he says, means that your true score is probably between 105 and 115. And older IQ tests were even less precise than modern ones. “Since the Norwegian study used data as old as 1967, I’d say that trying to find meaning in the three point gap it found could be nothing more than a wild goose chase,” Haselbauer says.

While small differences like the ones this study found are important spread across the entire population, they’re likely next to meaningless within a family. Remember that the averages for everyone in this study firstborn and last were well within the normal range.

Seeing past stereotypes

Does birth order affect children in other ways, shaping personalities, interests, and futures? Some experts believe it does, and in some cases there’s intriguing, though inconclusive, evidence. But many factors, from genes to life in the womb, influence how your child turns out, so it’s a mistake to attribute large effects to a subtle factor like the order in which your child was born. Here’s what you may have heard, and how to use the information to your advantage. There’s no study comparable to the Norwegian one to back this up, but it’s gained a lot of currency because it has the appearance of logic.

What to do: Nothing. The best advice for parenting any child is not to let any theories pigeonhole your child’s personality. You need to help him be the best version of who he naturally is, not what you might have read he should be.

That said, older kids often do have a lot of responsibility thrown at them (“Get your brother for me, would you?” “Can you help your sister with her socks?”). So remember to ease up sometimes, and don’t expect your firstborn to be a third parent to his younger sibs a huge responsibility for any young child.http://www.cheapjerseysgty4.top And when he misbehaves, give him consequences but spare him the “you need to set an example for your little sister” speech. No one needs a guilt trip like that. As such, they’re thought to be natural schmoozers and consensus builders when they grow up.

Some middle kids suffer from the firstborn’s long shadow, and because of it, it’s said, are prone to rebelliousness and competitiveness.

What to do: Go out of your way to make your middle child feel noticed. Display as many pictures of her as you do of your first and hang her artwork on the fridge just as often. Ask her what she thinks about that book you just read or the newest Webkinz then listen to her opinions. But how does it affect them? Leman and Connellan (as well as a host of nonexperts) say they’re the least likely to be disciplined, perhaps because Mom and Dad are by then too laid back or worn down to freak over every infraction. Popular wisdom also has it that youngest kids are doted on, and because of it become adept at wrapping people around their little fingers and clowning to get attention.

There are drawbacks to being perceived as a loosely supervised charmer, however. Youngest children may suffer from other people’s assumptions that they are spoiled, stubborn, and manipulative.

What to do: Although your youngest’s antics may seem especially cute, since she’s so adorably little compared with her bigger sibs, she needs limits as much as they do. Hold her responsible for her actions, whether it’s making sure she cleans up her toys or says “sorry” when she’s been fresh to a friend. Make sure she gets her share of chores, as well as her chance to occasionally choose which movie the family watches or what dessert you’ll serve. Most important: Whether she was born first or last, just let her be herself.

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